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Nonperturbative effects in the Standard Model with gauged 1-form symmetry

Anber, Mohamed M. and Poppitz, Erich (2021) 'Nonperturbative effects in the Standard Model with gauged 1-form symmetry.', Journal of High Energy Physics, 2021 (12). p. 55.


We study the Standard Model with gauged Z(1)N=2,3,6 subgroups of its Z(1)6 1-form global symmetry, making the gauge group SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1)ZN. We show that, on a finite T3, there are self-dual instantons of fractional topological charge. They mediate baryon- and lepton-number violating processes. We compare their amplitudes to the ones due to the usual BPST-instantons. We find that the small hypercharge coupling suppresses the fractional-instanton contribution, unless the torus size is taken sub-Planckian, or extra matter is added above the weak scale. We also discuss these results in light of the cosmological bounds on the torus size.

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Publisher statement:This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
Date accepted:27 November 2021
Date deposited:27 January 2022
Date of first online publication:09 December 2021
Date first made open access:27 January 2022

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