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The Quantitative Genetics of Flowering Traits in Wide Crosses of Chickpea

Lakmes, A. and Jhar, A. and Penmetsa, R.V. and Wei, W. and Brennan, A.C. and Kahriman, A. (2022) 'The Quantitative Genetics of Flowering Traits in Wide Crosses of Chickpea.', Agriculture, 12 (4).


Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most ımportant food legume crops in the world. Chickpea is valued for its nutritive seed composition, which is high in protein content and used increasingly as a substitute for animal protein. Days to fırst flowerıng is an important component of the adaptation and productivity of chickpea in rainfed environments characterized by terminal drought and heat stress. This study aimed to identify the inheritance pattern and identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for days to first flowering and flowering color in F2:4 generation nested association mapping (NAM) populations of chickpea obtained using wide crosses between Gokce as the cultivated variety and wild accessions of C. reticulatum and C. echinospermum. A total of ten populations of 113 to 191 individuals each were grown under field conditions near Sanliurfa, Turkey. Two populations were genotyped for 46 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, enabling QTL analysis. Flowering time differed between families, with the frequency distributions indicating quantitative inheritance controlled by both genes of major and minor effects. Three significant QTLs for the flowering time were mapped in one mapping family. For flower color, chi-square tests showed that five populations accepted single-gene action, two populations accepted two-gene action, and three populations accepted neither model. Two significant QTLs at three genomic regions were identified across the two genotyped populations. Days to first flowering was positively correlated with flower color for two of the ten populations. The diversity of QTLs identified underscored the potential of crop wild relatives of chickpea as sources of novel alleles for chickpea breeding.

Item Type:Article
Keywords:chickpea (Cicer arietinum); nested association mapping (NAM); flowering time; flower color; genetic control; inheritance
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Publisher statement:© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
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Date accepted:14 March 2022
Date deposited:13 April 2022
Date of first online publication:30 March 2022
Date first made open access:13 April 2022

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