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Unobserved heterogeneity between individuals in Group-Focused Enmity

Friehs, M.-T. and Masselmann, J. and Trautner, M. and Kotzur, P. F. and Schmidt, P. (2022) 'Unobserved heterogeneity between individuals in Group-Focused Enmity.', International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 16 . pp. 1-17.


Group-focused enmity (GFE) and related research have mostly focused on variable-centred analyses such as structural equation modelling and factor analysis, implicitly assuming that the results apply uniformly to all participants in the sample. Person-centred research questions and analysis methods, which investigate unobserved heterogeneity in the sample, have been lacking in GFE research. Nonetheless, initial evidence exists from research on Islamophobia and GFE that various unobserved latent classes (i.e., subgroups) differing in their average prejudice can be identified within one dataset. In this manuscript, we applied factor mixture modelling to investigate unobserved heterogeneity using the data of the German GFE survey 2011. We found two latent classes of equivalent factor-analytical composition with consistently high versus low expressions of target-specific prejudice. No comparison of latent GFE means was possible. Membership in the high prejudice latent class was associated with higher age, right-wing political orientation, high right-wing authoritarianism and high social dominance orientation. Our findings demonstrate the importance of exploring unobserved heterogeneity in attitudes research and outline how person-centred research can complement variable-centred research in order to understand social-psychological phenomena.

Item Type:Article
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Available under License - Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives 4.0.
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Publisher statement:Copyright (c) 2022 Maria-Therese Friehs, Judith Masselmann, Maike Trautner, Patrick Ferdinand Kotzur, Peter Schmidt This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Date accepted:No date available
Date deposited:19 April 2022
Date of first online publication:13 April 2022
Date first made open access:19 April 2022

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