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Ratification of subseries/subepochs as formal rank/units in international chronostratigraphy

Aubry, Marie-Pierre and Piller, Werner E. and Gibbard, Philip L. and Harper, David A. T. and Finney, Stanley C. (2022) 'Ratification of subseries/subepochs as formal rank/units in international chronostratigraphy.', Episodes, 45 (1). pp. 97-99.


The IUGS Executive Committee has voted unanimously to ratify the proposal for formal adoption of the chronostratigraphical/geochronological unit divisions subseries/subepoch within the International Stratigraphic Guide as approved by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and forwarded to the IUGS EC on 24 March 2021**. The subseries/subepochs are now incorporated in a six-tiered chronostratigraphic hierarchy of units that are formally defined by a designated GSSP (Global Stage Stratotype and Point) at the base of designated type stages. Henceforth, subseries/subepochs of the Cenozoic are to be denominated by capitalised positional adjectives -- Lower/Early, Middle, and Upper/Late – added to the names of the relevant series/epochs.

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Publisher statement:This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Date accepted:08 July 2021
Date deposited:01 June 2022
Date of first online publication:01 March 2022
Date first made open access:01 June 2022

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