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The Statistics of Eye Movements and Binocular Disparities during VR Gaming: Implications for Headset Design

Aizenman, Avi and Koulieris, George-Alex and Gibaldi, Agostino and Sehgal, Vibhor and Levi, Dennis and Banks, Martin S. (2023) 'The Statistics of Eye Movements and Binocular Disparities during VR Gaming: Implications for Headset Design.', ACM Transactions on Graphics, 42 (1). p. 7.


The human visual system evolved in environments with statistical regularities. Binocular vision is adapted to these such that depth perception and eye movements are more precise, faster, and performed comfortably in environments consistent with the regularities. We measured the statistics of eye movements and binocular disparities in VR-gaming environments and found that they are quite different from those in the natural environment. Fixation distance and direction are more restricted in VR, and fixation distance is farther. The pattern of disparity across the visual field is less regular in VR and does not conform to a prominent property of naturally occurring disparities. From this we predict that double vision is more likely in VR than in the natural environment. We also determined the optimal screen distance to minimize discomfort due to the vergence-accommodation conflict, and the optimal nasal-temporal positioning of HMD screens to maximize binocular field of view. Finally, in a user study we investigated how VR content affects comfort and performance. Content that is more consistent with the statistics of the natural world yields less discomfort than content that is not. Furthermore, consistent content yields slightly better performance than inconsistent content.

Item Type:Article
Full text:(VoR) Version of Record
Available under License - Creative Commons Attribution 4.0.
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Publisher statement:© ACM 2022. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive Version of Record was published in ACM Transactions on Graphics},
Date accepted:17 May 2022
Date deposited:15 June 2022
Date of first online publication:21 July 2022
Date first made open access:27 July 2022

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