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SIBELIUS-DARK: a galaxy catalogue of the local volume from a constrained realization simulation

McAlpine, Stuart and Helly, John C and Schaller, Matthieu and Sawala, Till and Lavaux, Guilhem and Jasche, Jens and Frenk, Carlos S and Jenkins, Adrian and Lucey, John R and Johansson, Peter H (2022) 'SIBELIUS-DARK: a galaxy catalogue of the local volume from a constrained realization simulation.', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 512 (4). pp. 5823-5847.


We present SIBELIUS-DARK, a constrained realization simulation of the local volume to a distance of 200 Mpc from the Milky Way. SIBELIUS-DARK is the first study of the ‘Simulations Beyond The Local Universe’ (SIBELIUS) project, which has the goal of embedding a model Local Group-like system within the correct cosmic environment. The simulation is dark-matter-only, with the galaxy population calculated using the semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We demonstrate that the large-scale structure that emerges from the SIBELIUS constrained initial conditions matches well the observational data. The inferred galaxy population of SIBELIUS-DARK also match well the observational data, both statistically for the whole volume and on an object-by-object basis for the most massive clusters. For example, the K-band number counts across the whole sky, and when divided between the northern and southern Galactic hemispheres, are well reproduced by SIBELIUS-DARK. We find that the local volume is somewhat unusual in the wider context of ΛCDM: it contains an abnormally high number of supermassive clusters, as well as an overall large-scale underdensity at the level of ≈5 per cent relative to the cosmic mean. However, whilst rare, the extent of these peculiarities does not significantly challenge the ΛCDM model. SIBELIUS-DARK is the most comprehensive constrained realization simulation of the local volume to date, and with this paper we publicly release the halo and galaxy catalogues at z = 0, which we hope will be useful to the wider astronomy community.

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Publisher statement:© 2022 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Date accepted:30 January 2022
Date deposited:21 June 2022
Date of first online publication:08 February 2022
Date first made open access:21 June 2022

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