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Multiwavelength campaign on the Super-Eddington NLS1 RX J0134.2-4258 – I. Peculiar X-ray spectra and variability

Jin, Chichuan and Done, Chris and Ward, Martin and Panessa, Francesca and Liu, Bo and Liu, Heyang (2022) 'Multiwavelength campaign on the Super-Eddington NLS1 RX J0134.2-4258 – I. Peculiar X-ray spectra and variability.', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 512 (4). pp. 5642-5656.


We have conducted a new long-term multiwavelength campaign on one of the most super-Eddington narrow-line Seyfert 1s (NLS1s) known, namely RX J0134.2-4258. In this first paper, we report deep simultaneous X-ray observations performed by XMM–Newton and NuSTAR on 2019 December 19, during which RX J0134.2-4258 was fortuitously at one of its lowest X-ray flux states. However, there is a clear rise above 4 keV which implies that the intrinsic source flux may be higher. The X-ray spectra observed between 1996 and 2019 show drastic variability, probably due to complex, variable absorption along the line of sight. Unusually, the soft X-ray excess appears extremely weak in all these spectra, even when the hard X-ray spectrum has a steep slope of 2.2. We explore the spectral-timing properties of the new (low X-ray flux) and archival (high X-ray flux) XMM–Newton data, fitting their time-average, rms, and lag spectra simultaneously. The variability spectra indicate the presence of a very weak soft X-ray Comptonization component, whose shape is similar to the soft excess in normal super-Eddington NLS1s, but with flux relative to the power law which is lower by more than one order of magnitude. Above 4 keV the low-flux data are dominated by a different component, which lags with respect to the lower energy emission. This is consistent with an origin of reflection or partial covering absorption from low ionization material located within 100 Rg. We interpret this as further indication of the presence of a clumpy disc wind.

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Publisher statement:This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. ©: 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Date accepted:20 March 2022
Date deposited:28 June 2022
Date of first online publication:24 March 2022
Date first made open access:28 June 2022

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