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Application of evidence-based methods to construct mechanism-driven chemical assessment frameworks

Hoffmann, S. and Aiassa, E. and Angrish, M. and Beausoleil, C. and Bois, F. Y. and Ciccolallo, L. and Craig, P. S. and de Vries, R. B. M. and Dorne, J. L. C. M. and Druwe, I. L. and Edwards, S. W. and Eskes, C. and Georgiadis, M. and Hartung, T. and Kienzler, A. and Kristjansson, E. A. and Lam, J. and Martino, L. and Meek, B. and Morgan, R. L. and Munoz-Guajardo, I. and Noyes, P. D. and Parmelli, E. and Piersma, A. and Rooney, A. and Sena, E. and Sullivan, K. and Tarazona, J. and Terron, A. and Thayer, K. and Turner, J. and Verbeek, J. and Verloo, D. and Vinken, M. and Watford, S. and Whaley, P. and Wikoff, D. and Willett, K. and Tsaioun, K. (2022) 'Application of evidence-based methods to construct mechanism-driven chemical assessment frameworks.', ALTEX, 39 (3). pp. 499-518.


The workshop titled “Application of evidence-based methods to construct mechanism-driven chemical assessment frameworks” was co-organized by the Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and hosted by EFSA at its headquarters in Parma, Italy on October 2 and 3, 2019. The goal was to explore integration of systematic review with mechanistic evidence evaluation. Participants were invited to work on concrete products to advance the exploration of how evidence-based approaches can support the development and application of adverse outcome pathways (AOP) in chemical risk assessment. The workshop discussions were centered around three related themes: 1) assessing certainty in AOPs, 2) literature-based AOP development, and 3) integrating certainty in AOPs and non-animal evidence into decision frameworks. Several challenges, mostly related to methodology, were identified and largely determined the workshop recommendations. The workshop recommendations included the comparison and potential alignment of processes used to develop AOP and systematic review methodology, including the translation of vocabulary of evidence-based methods to AOP and vice versa, the development and improvement of evidence mapping and text mining methods and tools, as well as a call for a fundamental change in chemical risk and uncertainty assessment methodology if to be conducted based on AOPs and new approach methodologies (NAM). The usefulness of evidence-based approaches for mechanism-based chemical risk assessments was stressed, particularly the potential contribution of the rigor and transparency inherent to such approaches in building stakeholders’ trust for implementation of NAM evidence and AOPs into chemical risk assessment.

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Publisher statement:This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is appropriately cited (CC-BY). Copyright on any article in ALTEX is retained by the author(s).
Date accepted:No date available
Date deposited:29 November 2022
Date of first online publication:20 July 2022
Date first made open access:29 November 2022

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