We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. By continuing to browse this repository, you give consent for essential cookies to be used. You can read more about our Privacy and Cookie Policy.

Durham Research Online
You are in:

An empirical analysis of participation in international environmental agreements

Bellelli, Francesco S. and Scarpa, Riccardo and Aftab, Ashar (2023) 'An empirical analysis of participation in international environmental agreements.', Journal of Environmental Economics and Management .


This study investigates the determinants of participation in environmental agreements, with a special focus on lobbying and regional agreements. To this end, we collated the largest ratification dataset in the literature and identified all countries eligible for membership in each agreement. This feature allows us to correct the identification bias associated with the misidentification of the risk set when regional agreements are included in the regression sample. We also improve the treatment of unobserved heterogeneity by using a multilevel survival approach and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimator. Overall, we find that countries’ participation choices are interrelated and primarily driven by the agreements’ characteristics. Our findings indicate that regional agreements are two and half times more likely to be ratified than global agreements and that environmental lobbying positively affects participation in environmental agreements, while the effect of industrial lobbying is statistically insignificant. This result is robust to changes in specification and proxies used. Our results motivate several policy suggestions. We emphasise regional agreements’ capacity to deliver higher participation than global agreements and the importance of securing the early ratification of key players.

Item Type:Article
Full text:Publisher-imposed embargo
(AM) Accepted Manuscript
Available under License - Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives 4.0.
File format - PDF
Publisher Web site:
Publisher statement:© 2023. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Date accepted:04 January 2023
Date deposited:06 January 2023
Date of first online publication:No date available
Date first made open access:No date available

Save or Share this output

Look up in GoogleScholar