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How Personalization Affects Motivation in Gamified Review Assessments

Rodrigues, Luiz and Palomino, Paula T. and Toda, Armando M. and Klock, Ana C. T. and Pessoa, Marcela and Pereira, Filipe D. and Oliveira, Elaine H. T. and Oliveira, David F. and Cristea, Alexandra I. and Gasparini, Isabela and Isotani, Seiji (2023) 'How Personalization Affects Motivation in Gamified Review Assessments.', International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education .


Personalized gamification aims to address shortcomings of the one-size-fits-all (OSFA) approach in improving students’ motivations throughout the learning process. However, studies still focus on personalizing to a single user dimension, ignoring multiple individual and contextual factors that affect user motivation. Unlike prior research, we address this issue by exploring multidimensional personalization compared to OSFA based on a multi-institution sample. Thus, we conducted a controlled experiment in three institutions, comparing gamification designs (OSFA and Personalized to the learning task and users’ gaming habits/preferences and demographics) in terms of 58 students’ motivations to complete assessments for learning. Our results suggest no significant differences among OSFA and Personalized designs, despite suggesting user motivation depended on fewer user characteristics when using personalization. Additionally, exploratory analyses suggest personalization was positive for females and those holding a technical degree, but negative for those who prefer adventure games and those who prefer single-playing. Our contribution benefits designers, suggesting how personalization works; practitioners, demonstrating to whom the personalization strategy was more or less suitable; and researchers, providing future research directions.

Item Type:Article
Full text:Publisher-imposed embargo until 10 January 2024.
(AM) Accepted Manuscript
File format - PDF
Publisher Web site:
Publisher statement:This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:
Date accepted:12 December 2022
Date deposited:11 January 2023
Date of first online publication:10 January 2023
Date first made open access:10 January 2024

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